Non – Governmental Organisations -NGO
A NGO or non-governmental organization is defined as,” any international organization that is not founded by an international treaty”. NGO is a legally constituted organization, created by private persons or government. They may be totally or partially funded by government but usually maintain their non-governmental status.
It is believed that the voice of people against slavery in mid-19th century gained power and was important part of anti-slavery movement. The phrase. ‘NGO’ came into popular use with the establishment of UNO (United Nations organizations) in 1945, for a consultative role between UN and organizations.
An NGO’s main role became to hear the voice of deprived people, address their problems, take up humanitarian issues, bring aid or help, address developmental aid and sustainable development. Because of their presence main problems could be solved within a nation. But they have branches or work with other organizations to have a better reach. So their transnational networking is extensive. Apart from the term NGO, today, terms like, self helps groups, private voluntary organization and grass root organization are used.
NGOs exits and function effectively where government may not be able reach out or help in areas where government help is not possible. They are greatly involved in the welfare of disadvantaged people, encourage observance of human rights, poverty alleviation(provide the basic skills to find food and maintain themselves)and work with people displaced by natural disasters, like floods, earthquake, drought, tsunami and so on bringing them medical aid.
NGOs maintain good public relations to meet their goals. They work to mobilize support from individuals, private organizations, and local people. Mobilizing support and funds are two basic management techniques which enable an NGO to function properly also each member has the knowledge ,should be able to contribute and help in decision making process and also learn more. Some of their qualities which make them effective are-accountability, credibility and their code of conduct. The presence and important role of NGOs has increased with globalization and environment problems.
NGOs are of two types-one, which is operational-they design/plan and implement development related projects which may be community based, national and international. They work with lot of professional help and volunteers.
The second one is advocacy-these work to defend or promote a specific cause. They try to raise awareness. acceptance, and knowledge by doing press work (getting information published) and conducting activities events. E.g. most of the environmental groups which work to raise awareness about global warming and pollution of rivers.
In India NGOs must be created under a public trust act and enjoys the tax benefits and privileges. There are more than a million NGOs working in India and play a great role in providing relief and help in different parts of the country. Some of the well known and certified NGOs in India are-
- Association for Rural Development and Action Research (ARDAR).
- Child line India foundation
- Help Age India
- National Association for the Blind.
- The Banyan
Some of the International NGOs are-
- (United Nations)
- United Nations Trauma Relief
- International RED CROSS SOCIETY
- INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
- WHO(WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION)
- WWF(WORLD WILDLIFE FUND)
- CRY(CHILD RELIEF AND YOU)
- SEVVA(SELF EMPOLYED WOMEN’S ASSOCIATION)
- 9 Action Aid
- AAH(ACTION AGAINST HUNGER)
NGOs work in difficult conditions (disasters: war or conflict zones) and are contributing immensely towards humanity. We on our part must contribute to them by way of help, manually or financially. We must make efforts to give a helping hand and spend some time working with them selflessly.