Many among us misunderstand the meaning of the phrase ‘scientific temper’. They believe it means the study of science and its allied subjects, therefore, it should be left to those who have a special interest in science, Scientific temper means the habit of performing various acts in a rational and logical manner. This is the attitude on which the foundation of all modern technologies is laid. No nation can hope to progress if its populace is steeped in ignorance and superstitions. Religious thoughts and philosophies are important in order to maintain the cultural identity of a nation and its people, but more important is the proper and systematic education of its people. Such an effort makes people more responsive to modern thoughts. They become more receptive to new ideas of development. Countries like Israel, etc. which are deeply religious are today on the verge of declaring themselves self-sufficient and developed because of the high level of literacy and spread of scientific temperament among their people. On the contrary countries like Iran, Egypt, and Iraq who were until ten years ago making rapid social and industrial progress are lagging behind because of the destruction of scientific thoughts and institutions by their fundamental rulers.