Social Problems in India
Poverty as a whole is a curse for those who are deprived of some privileges and benefits they deserve. Rural India has a population of 534.4 million. More than half of the total population lives in villages. A major part of the people is working hard to supply food to city residents but the neglect and degradation they face is beyond any comparison. A large part of the village population is divided among the zamindars. They live as coolis, slaves, or as workers with the landlords. These people move from state to states in working for the field owners. Bihar residents move to Northern India, Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal for working in the field. The labour, as surveyed, had 70 percent from outside and 30 percent from the village. Out of the 70 percent, 45 percent are living here within their native places. These people send a major part of their earnings to their families to pay back loans or for meeting the two hands.
An alarming era of educated unemployment is fast approaching, particularly in urban areas. The government policy of privatisation and takeover by privates has created a problem. This will certainly bring urban poverty or it will enhance rural economic downfall. The rural population still suffers exploitation by the city or urban residents. They try to trap, bind and exploit the poor ruralites. The ignorance of law provides ample opportunity for exploiters to come as stockbrokers, advocates, and doctors to villages to trouble them. Even the sentiments for the dead relatives are exploited by priests and pandits, at the time of Puja.
Light, gas fuel, petrol, and even drinking water is a rare things in a village. The ignorance of bank laws bars any help for them and they do not get the benefits they are supposed to get from financial sources. Some villages of the north are living prosperous life. They use their own dish antennas for entertainment programs. This compares with the people of backward states of other parts of the country.
Their earnings and living are so very low and poor. They even do not understand the calamities of nature. They depend on rain, which is either dry or over-spell. The floods and droughts often compel them to send their children away.
Villages are the birthplaces of politics and politicians. This is a training ground for panchayat entry and then entry to legislative councils. These people find it convenient to keep the villagers in underfed conditions. They forgot the versions of Mahatma Gandhi who wanted each village to count as a unit and expected his followers to work more devotedly, and delightfully for the developments of village folks along with the cities and metros. Gandhiji wanted to provide education, health, and other amenities for realities.
Rural women also need to be looked after for their problems. The right to equality is crushed under the struggle for survival. They toil hard to preserve their existence and they are the most unwelcome member of society. The day starts early morning for them when they get up and churn milk for the house and provide food to domestic animals. Then cleaning and asking the children to get ready for school. This lady serves tea or milk to the family and prepares food for the field workers. She will send the animals for grazing and will carry food for her husband. She will work in the field as the head of the house takes his luncheon. Tired, she will return to prepare food for the family.
Her tired eyes await the return of all family members and husband in the evening. Routine closes as the family settle when planning for the daughter’s marriage and preparation. The struggle hardly leaves any time for her care of the health or personal requirement. So, this fate of the family mother continues.
The World Bank defines rural development as a strategy to improve the economic and social life of a group of people. Development was one of the top priorities of planning. The plans, however, were not operational. It has to be tackled by local people with the help of educated field authorities. The main focus should be on rural developments and not the development of infrastructure. Women should be inspired to participate more vigorously in this campaign.
Progress in concept, prosperity in houses will certainly bring a change in the attitude of rural life and they will rise to accept the changes in styles and technology. Prosperity in villages will ensure the rise of the whole nation and country.