The Democracy in India
Essay No. 01
Inequality of rights and disparity of opportunities have been breeding ground for revolutions. So on the ruins of monarchy and aristocracy, democracy has come into being with its doctrine of political equality. It is undoubtedly a grand social ideal. According to George Bernard Shaw, “It is a social order aiming at the greatest available welfare for the whole population and not for a class.” “A world in which, the voice of the people is the voice of God and the political capacity and sagacity of everyone over the age of twenty one is infinite and infallible.’
According to eminent political theorists, there are three basic conditions, which a democracy must fulfill. It must aim at the greatest good of the largest number it must aim at setting differences through discussions and compromise and it must work for the establishment of an egalitarian society. If we cast a critical glance backward, we shall see that the evolution of a genuinely democratic system in India has been continuously blighted by these factors ever since we became free.
Efforts to secure the greatest good to the largest number have been blocked by the undue attachment to self-interest on the part of the citizen, the legislator and the minister alike. The most eloquent proof of this is the widespread incidence of corruption in its various forms. There is almost no sphere of national life, which can be described as free of the taint of corruption. The ministers, legislators and officials indulge in it equally.
Party spirit, which has been enumerated above as the second factor which can blight the growth of democratic tradition anywhere, has manifested in India in several ways. It is this party spirit which inspires exclusive tendencies are today endangering the unity of the country. Moreover in India people are not so much for the individual candidates as for the party to which he belongs. Independent candidates normally stand little chances in elections. Since elections are contested by political parties, the merit of the candidates seeking election does not count.
The third essential characteristic of a democracy is that it must work for the establishment of an egalitarian society, a society in which there is equal opportunity to all. This is evidently impossible when private self interest and party spirit are so much to the fore. The politician, in his anxiety to turn everything to personal advantage dictates policy in every sphere from education to social welfare and does not hesitate to inject parochialism whenever he can. This conspiracy of self-seeking has made the attainment of the goal of an egalitarian society almost on impossibility. A democratic Government needs not only a parliamentary majority but also a parliamentary minority, the later functioning as the strong opposition. Parliamentary democracy cannot work successfully unless the ruling party and the opposition parties agree to bicker peacefully and to settle differences through constitutional means. Unfortunately the Parliament sessions in India are now presenting scenes of chaos and confusion more than that of settlement. No important issue is properly discussed because the ruling group and the opposition waste time in allegations and counter allegations more than settling any issues. The sessions of Parliament have become more a formality than looking into the problems of different sections, regions and aspects of the country
Thus the present democratic set up seems to have proved unequal to the exigencies of India. So there is the need to modify the traditional institutions of democracy to suit the present day conditions.
Essay No. 02
Democracy in India
The growth of democracy can be said to start in India with the institution of the first represent government under the Prime Ministership of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
Although democracy is an ideal form of government because the people themselves the government through their representatives, democratic ideas cannot be planted in the minds of the people through lessons or books for those are learnt by the people through their own experience. More than that democracy is a way of life and society where equality, liberty and fraternity reign supreme and it also ensures dignity of the individuals.
India is the largest democracy of the world. It! has Parliamentary form of democracy which means the government can remain in power only so long as it enjoys confidence of the majority of the Members of Parliament and the moment it loses its confidence it has to vacate the office.
It is a disturbing factor that caste and community play a big part in the selection of candidates by all the political parties. Similarly voters also keep caste consideration in mind while voting which is undesirable.
We lack the healthy balance between ruling and opposition parties as they seem to prefer their own interest above smooth running of government. Opposition votes too, are divided among many parties. Besides the opposition parties oppose just for the sake of opposition.
The role of Governor has become a bit controversial as it is alleged that he acts as an agent of the central government and uses his discretion against the government of the state.
Democracy cannot be said to have achieved its role here as it has failed to provide basic needs of the people like food, clothes and shelter. Also a big number of our politicians have become corrupt.