Necessity of Disarmament
The world was divided between the two conflicting ideologies. On the one hand, there was communism and on the other, there was capitalism. The champions of the former ideology were communists like the Soviet Union and China. The later ideology was being supported by some western countries like America, England and France. The whole world, with the exception of non-aligned countries like India, was divided into two rival camps. The ideological war between the two rival groups gave rise to an arms race. The problem was how to stop this race and how to persuade the nations to give up the race for arms. It was a big problem for disarmament.
Consequent to the disintegration of the Soviet Union, that group weakened and subsequently ceased to exist. On termination of cold war, the world was very much hopeful for reduction in the rare of arms. The fact was that with the collapse of the Soviet Union the concept of balance of power vanished forever. In the epoch making demise of the USSR, came the USA on the top of world affairs as a unipolar power. There was no opposition and threat for America after the demise of the communist group. America started a huge storage of arms including nuclear arms for dictating its terms upon the world with iron hands. America believed that it could translate the dictatorship into its right through the fear of power of arms. It has been continuing the modernization of arms for making America the strongest country and keeping on the business with the developing and the under developed countries, it started showing eye-brows to others, who were holding arms for forcing them to follow treaty of disarmament. History shows that America aided a number of countries of the world for conflict to enable the division or destruction of those working against its superiority. It still preaches others for peace, unity and destruction of storage of their arms in the name of disarmament as a World’s policy without doing the same for itself.
There is a need for implementing Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) by all the member countries. This treaty has not been effective despite a time lapse of 38 years because of differences of opinions between the nuclear weapon states and non-nuclear weapon states. Its discriminatory nature, its inability to check proliferation, its incapacity to prevent the hidden secrets of nuclear programmes of a number of countries of the world, its powerlessness in the face of selective proliferation by nuclear weapon states, and its failure to ensure nuclear disarmament are the major issues on which the treaty has been criticised and rendered unacceptable. These issues are now to be sorted out finally for ensuring disarmament. All the nations have to realise the need of disarmament for making them tension free of arms acceleration and fear of conflict. All the countries whether they are members or not have to focus on making the treaty successful for creating a mechanism to exert their collective will for implementing the policy of disarmament, which is the need of the world today. The present scenario of nuclear development, which will have the adverse impact on the progressive world, emphasises the necessity of disarmament. The threats now include nuclear-terrorism, black marketing, storage of fissile materials, acquisition of dangerous weapons under the guise of power programmes, and storage of large number of modernised weapons, all of which will shake peace and security of the world. It will be worthwhile to see how the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty can be made effective which can address these threats and disarm the nations or the agencies involved in such activities and are creating security hazards for the world. Many states accept this and are trying to pressurise the concerned countries for disarmament in the wide ranging interest of the world for ensuring peace and security.
The UNO which is world body’s forum can play a vital role in getting disarmament materialised and check the undesirable stock-piling of weapons. What is needed is that the nations of the entire world stand up collectively against unnecessary armaments and save the UN’s image in this regard. The big thing which the world has to oppose with one voice is the American interference and its impact, in the UN’s function, which has generally been troubling in dealing global issues including security matters in particular.
The countries which are militarily powerful are either black-mailing others or invading them causing a huge loss of men and material. Aggression has never been the solution of the problem. Infact, it aggrieves both the countries. The wars have generally been fought among many countries due to lack of effective mediation for settling the disputes of aggrieved countries. The failure of the UNO and ineffective implementation of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty right from 1970 became cause of inviting conflicts among the countries in which no one achieved fruitful result.
In the changed global scenario the countries are inclined in a particular direction for growing their trade and economy with joint adventures leaving behind their long outstanding disputes. It has automatically brought realisation of reduction in the storage of arms. If we take the example of India-China and India-Pakistan, a big change has come in the trend of these countries, They now feel that the world is moving very fast and they cannot segregate themselves by involving in domestic or regional quarrels. It is very clear in their minds that the disarmament through various phases is necessary for cutting down their defence expenditure which will have a positive impact on their economy and they can use it for other important purposes like development, industrialization, foreign trade and commerce for enabling them to move with the splendid world.