There is a need and importance of planning for development of the country in all the spheres.
India has continued planned economic development since 1951. Many important changes were brought out through First. to Fourth five year plans. Indian economy was given a national character. Capitalism gradually changed its shape. Many privately owned business concerns were nationalized such as Life Insurance, Air Transport, Coal Mines, and Banks and so on. The first two plans were crucial for India as there was the necessity to establish the foundation on numerous aspects. The works under these plans were carried out immediately after our independence. The Britishers left us backward in almost all the fields. There was a need for struggling and working hard to make these plans successful for which India exerted its full strength and achieved the goal. We got valuable experience and foot way to make subsequent five year plans more effective in order to bring about more development. There was industrial revolution in India during this period under the leadership of late Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of the country. He had a very high vision in that direction. He believed that the industrial growth is one of the major factors for progress of the country and also for its self-dependence. There were certain aspects where India got tremendous achievement. The production of steel was increased. There was remarkable progress in generating the power by executing a number of river valley projects. The functioning of cottage industries was streamlined. A number of new industries and factories were established during that time.
China attacked India in October 1962 which put a severe strain on our economy. But Indian Government met the challenge with courage. China’s attack put compulsion before the Government for expansion of defence and for spending more money for defence preparations. However, the entire nation rose as one man and the people of India bore the burden placed upon them bravely. Despite the attack by China, the work for development as per third plan was carried out need fully and successfully.
The fourth plan stressed importance to modernize India’s agricultural system. It also stressed need of family planning and social services in order to check the growth rate and uplift the social status of countrymen. Though there was unavoidable financial difficulty because of 1965 Indo-Pak war, yet development works did not suffer much. However, the aim of strengthening the defence was not com-promised. More Ordnance factories were set up and the production of existing factories was stepped up. No doubt that the political scenario after fourth general election was changed. Many regional parties replaced the Congress governments in many states. That adversely affected Indian polity and became hindrance in getting foreign aid due to political instability in the country at that time. Despite all these difficulties, satisfactory progress could be made on all fronts.
The Indo-Pak war of December 1971 proved India as a militarily strong nation. By that time India could improve its financial position too. The fifth five-year-plan could be put into operation. It was an ambitious plan which was covering all the fields of economy. It was aimed at creating more employment opportunities to the youth. Industrial growth and export of production were stepped up. When Janta Party Government came into power following general elections in 1976 further boost to economy got materialized.
The general elections were again held during 1980 and the Congress (I) gained an overwhelming majority headed by late Mrs. Indira Gandhi. The process of sixth five-year plan was speeded-up. The aim was to increase production in every field particularly in the agricultural and industrial fields. Power generation, rural electrification, cement, steel and other essential items meant for common people were given top priority.
Though the country achieved much through the process of planning till the close of sixth five-year-plan, much more was to be done through subsequent plans. The seventh five-year plan was a forward looking plan. It took into account the growing needs of the country. Its aim was to build strong and prosperous India.
The aim of eighth five-year-plan was to make India self-sufficient in numerous fields by increasing per capita income, reducing unemployment drastically, and bringing down inflation rate.
The ninth five-year-plan had the aim of greater production, eradication of poverty, upliftment of people of weaker section, basic education to all, primary health care and housing facilities to the poor. Maximum efforts were made to improve the things.
The tenth five-year-plan emphasized defence preparedness including nuclear capability of the country, economic growth, enhancement of science and technology including computerization for enabling India to emerge as a strong nation.
The eleventh five-year-plan is basically for following the foot-prints chalked out in tenth five-year-plan to get the leftover task completed. The main priority of this plan is to strengthen Indian economy and encourage foreign investment. This plan has stressed specifically further development of information technology, power generation, quality production to gain global standard in trade and the commerce. Its ultimate aim is to increase economic growth of the country. The Government is also very serious to achieve the specific goal in this direction.
India has achieved a lot through all the Five-Year-Plans. What we are today is because of our Five-Year-Plans. We need to do more through subsequent plans keeping the global scenario in mind.