Essay No. 01
Pollution is by far the most rapidly growing problem of the modern technological society. Pollution implies the addition or release of such substances in such concentrations in the environment which tend to deteriorate the use to which such components of the eco-system are put to, and which tend to impair the normal physiological and biological systems of the associated, including man. These include such chemicals or substances which do not form part of the natural cycles but are gradually building up in the environment. Man is an essential part of the highly complex web of living organisms which we can call the biosphere and therefore, harm done to any part of the biosphere would reflect on human welfare.
The condition in India is pretty serious. It is no longer, feasible to ignore the alarming nature of India’s environmental conditions. Seventy per cent of all the available water in India is polluted. During the last decade, there has been five-fold increase in the incidence of blood cancer and lymph node cancer. Nearly 53 per cent of India’s total land area is subject to serious environmental degradation. Deforestation, water, air and noise pollution, in sanitation—all these are posing a serious threat not only to the quality of life in India, but also to its basic survival. There are many diseases which are transmitted through water. Examples are typhoid, cholera, jaundice, etc. According to an estimate more than 80 per cent Indians suffer from water-borne diseases.
Man is poisoning the biosphere. Nobody can save him from this danger unless he himself becomes alert. It is the responsibility of the international community to protect the environment from pollution. It is gratifying that some action is being taken, though belatedly, in our country to identity problems connected with environment. The environment (Protection) bill 1986 passed by Parliament in May 1986, would enable co-ordination of activities of various regulatory agencies, creation of an authority with adequate powers to protect the environment and “deterrent” punishment to those endangering it. It is hoped that with the strict implementation of the bill, the needed efforts to protect our environment would be forthcoming.
Essay No. 02
Environment is the surrounding in which we live. It consists of air, water, light, sound and smell. This environment has become polluted. The air that we breathe is no more pure. The water that we drink is full of germs. The sound and light are polluted. We find stinking smell around us.
Air pollution is caused by poisonous gases. The factories produce smoke. Smoke contains particles of carbon. These particles pollute the air. Trees purify the air; unfortunately trees have been cut on a large scale. Water pollution is also caused by factories. The factories use different chemicals. The waste part of these chemicals is thrown into rivers and ponds. It enters the sources of water. Water ceases to be fit for drinking purposes. The polluted air and water cause a number of diseases.
Sound pollution is caused by radios and loud-speakers. The practice of using loud-speakers is common at religious places. The cassettes of western music are played everywhere. This music is nothing but sound and fury. It affects the nervous system of man. It also damages the hearing power of man. There is also paper pollution. Newspapers publish sensational news. There are obscene advertisements. They corrupt the public mind. This kind of pollution is called moral pollution.
Whatever the type of pollution may be, it is certainly harmful for man. Therefore it should be checked by all means. Industrialization and urbanization should be planned. Industrial waste should be buried under the earth. Chemicals of harmful nature should not be used. More and more trees should be grown to keep the air pure. The use of loudspeakers should be checked and regulated. The news papers should also not indulge in yellow journalism in the public interest.
Essay No. 03
It is paradoxical that the man, who needs the healthy environment most, is destroying its sanctity and purity for present monetary gains and endangers its own coming generation.”
Never before in the history, has the environment, pollution drawn such attention of policy makers, academicians and the court, at least in India. A lot of research has done during the last few years to find out a suitable linkage between economic activities and the environment and a need for new technologies has felt in order to save the environment from the ever increasing pollution.
Environmental problems in India can be classified into two broad categories (a) those arising from negative effects of the very process of development and (b) those arising from conditions of poverty and under-development. The first category has to do with the impact of efforts to achieve rapid economic growth and development. Poorly planned developmental projects are usually environmentally destructive. The second category has to do with the impact on the health and integrity of our natural resources such as land, soil, water forest, wildlife, space, etc. as an after-effect of poverty.
There are about 30 major enactments related to the protection of environment now being administered by the Central and State Government. Prominent among these are : The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980; The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974; The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1977, The Environment Protection Act, 1986; The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991; The Motor Vehicle Act, 1938 as amended in 1988, the factories Act and Insecticides Act. These were enacted by several organization like Central and State Pollution Control Board, Chief inspectors of factories and insecticides inspectors of agricultural departments, etc.
Owing to the rapid industrial growth the most precious heritage of mankind, the natural environment is in danger of becoming polluted. Earlier most of the economic activities, development policies, were centered towards the motive of benefits or gain, but for the last few years it has been sincerely realized that investment on environmental conservation and pollution control measures enhance and improve the productivity. It is must to save the mankind from the revenge of the nature, if pollution keeps on like the past. Environmental pollution brings about Global Warming-a threat to the whole civilization. In 1992, the United Nationals Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted. It recognized that industrialized countries were most responsible for increased Green House Gases, Concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere and should be the first to act against climate change. The Ministry of Environment and Forests announced a policy statement for abatement of pollution in February 1992 according to which, the key elements for pollution prevention are adoption of best available clean and practicable technologies rather than end of the pipe treatment. The focus is one source reduction and substitution of chemicals with safe alternatives. The thrust has, therefore, been made for considering process changes which involved significant improvement in energy and water conservation. To follow up on the various issue covered in the policy statement for abatement of pollution, the National Conservation Strategy and the Forest Policy Statement, several new programmes and studies have been initiated and commissioned. An Environment Action Programme has been formulated covering a wide ambit of subjects such as clean technologies, improvement of water quality, institutional human resource development, forestry and natural resource accounting. To integrate natural resource accounting into the national accounting process, collection and analysis of environmental data has been initiated. It is proposed to manufacture a computerized map of the critically polluted areas through digitization, on a format based on Geographic Information System, which will provide thematic information on pollution status particularly for air, water and land.
In our country, the Supreme Court has played very crucial role in preserving pollution in the cities and preserving the forests. The various decisions have forced government to stop mining in forest areas. The Supreme Court has compelled the government to adopt rigid vehicular emission norms in the principal metropolitan cities. The Apex Court has also insisted on the use of preferred technologies and fuels such as CNG for buses and autos, in order to decrease the pollution levels. It is a good news that the Government has given green signal for the development of Hydrogen fuelled vehicles that have zero pollution capabilities. A High Power Committee has been established in June 2003, to draw up a blue print for developing Hydrogen as an alternative fuel in India. The focus of present day policies to utilize emission free technologies to be useful in preserving and conserving the precious natural environment.
Though government is quite serious to protect the environment yet it is the duty of every industrialist, every citizen to look upon well the necessity of preserving the nature and purity of environment not only for ourselves but also for coming generation. It is the environment from where we get the first basis requirements oxygen and water for our existence; and we are bent upon to pollute them, isn’t it like hitting our own head! We should make our mind and pledge to gift a pollution free environment to our precious coming generation.